1. Establishment of Seoul National University of Fine Arts
1) Born as the first art educational institution in Korea
On October 15, 1946, the College of Fine Arts was established as the art department of the College of Arts when Seoul National University was opened as nine colleges and one graduate school. This led to the birth of Korea’s first artistic higher education institution. The art department was promoted to art college on April 20 with the reorganization of Seoul National University in accordance with the “National School Decree” promulgated in April 1953. Seoul National University became the official name of Seoul National University under the education law promulgated on December 31, 1949. Seoul National University became a national university corporation in 2011. Seoul National University was established in accordance with the “Act on the Establishment of the National University of Seoul” issued by the US Military Administration on August 22, 1946 (issued on August 22, 1946, The United States Army Military Government in Korea is the United States Army Military Government in Korea, which received the administrative organization of the Chosun government office after liberation and ruled the southern part of the Korean peninsula on the 15th of August 1948 until the Korean government was established. The US Military Government established the Ministry of Education in the military government office and began training on September 11, 1945. The Academic Affairs Bureau was promoted to the Ministry of Education in March 1946.
The military government announces the “Seoul National University Campus” on June 19, two months before the announcement of the above laws through the Ministry of Education. On July 13, the following month, Chief of the Ministry of Education, Yu Eok-gyeom and the American Minister of Education, Colonel. Andrey O. Pittinger, announced the “National Seoul University Establishment Plan” The headquarters of the National Security Agency was named Kyungsung Empire University, which was established by the military government in 1924 in Seoul, in 1924. On October 7, the president of the United States was appointed. On October 17, it was renamed Kyungsung University. And its three colleges and universities, as well as nine national, public and private technical schools that were opened in the Japanese colonial period, were reorganized or reorganized to form a national university.
The US military government had a political purpose when it led the establishment of a national university in South Korea, a government that divided the Soviet Union and the Korean peninsula, which had ideologically replaced it after the Second World War, However, the military government has made it possible to utilize existing buildings, equipment, and professional manpower, so that the national budget can be used most effectively. As a result, nine colleges and universities including the College of Liberal Arts, the College of Education, the College of Law, the College of Commerce, the College of Engineering, the College of Medicine, the College of Dentistry, the College of Agriculture, and the College of Art were established along with the College of Music. There were all telegraphs. For example, the College of Medicine was founded in 1885, the College of Law was founded in 1895, the College of Agriculture and Forest Sciences was founded in 1906. And other educational institutions existed in different types of vocational schools during the Japanese occupation period. The music department absorbed the Kyungsung Music Research Institute, which was opened in April, 1943, as the first director. It was founded in 1938 by Kim Jae-hoon, who was also a graduate of Kyungsung Music Institute. The Kyungsung Music School, authorized by the US Military Administration on December 25, 1945, is the forerunner of the music department.
The delay in establishing arts higher education institutions in Korea is due to the interference and colonization of Japan as well as the failure of the nation-led establishment of a national university led by the Korean Empire. Park Yeong-hyo, who proposed the creation of a university in 1888, planned to establish a ‘National University’ in secret since 1894. However, the plan that Kojong approved as the foundation of the Royal College was not realized as an obstruction of Japan.
It was in the late 1880s that the debate about the establishment of a Western art school in Korea started first. After the signing of the treaty between Korea and France in 1886, a full-scale art exchange between Korea and France began. In 1889, when the World Expo in Paris was held, the two countries cooperated to form a plan to establish a craft art school. However, this plan was lost due to the outbreak of the Russo – Japanese War. After that, Japan started to exercise exclusive rights in all fields of our country, and the art exchange with France was also cut off. As a result, Koreans who wanted to receive modern art education professionally went to Japan except for three or four students who studied in the United States or Germany. Through this, art education at middle schools and high schools during the Japanese colonial period and liberation of art schools at domestic universities including Seoul National University of Art started by foreign students studying in Japan. This has long been a legacy that must be overcome in art education and art in our country.
On the other hand, a newspaper article (National Academy of Art and Music, “Freedom Newspaper”, May 27, 1946), just before Seoul National University opened its doors, said, “If buildings are solved, It was not possible to do so, but it was started as a temporary art and music department under the plan of independence in the future “. As a result, the art department started classes at the third floor of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and the wooden building on the northeast side of the attached museum. In addition to providing temporary campus in Busan for evacuation, in addition to the provision of temporary campus in Busan, there were three “directors” (the former Kyungsung Technical College building in April 1949, the former Kyungsung Medical College building in the Veterinary College of Yeongeon- And the government building in Hagi-dong engineering college), moved to Gwanak campus, which was established in 1975 according to the Seoul National University’s comprehensive plan in February 1976, and became the first independent campus. Although the College of Fine Arts started in a much worse environment than other colleges, it could be included in a small number of colleges, such as the College of Music, in contrast to most independent European countries, As a model.
The Arts Department was promoted to the College of Fine Arts in accordance with the National School Decree, promulgated in April 1953, and the Music Department was promoted to the College of Music. At that time, as the veterinary department of the College of Veterinary Medicine was promoted to the College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University was expanded into a university with 12 colleges and one graduate school. At present, the educational institutions of Seoul National University consist of fifteen colleges, one undergraduate, 11 specialized graduate schools and five graduate schools (master: 70 departments / doctor: 72 departments / department) 29) are among the general graduate schools to which they belong.
2) The process of establishing the art department and the composition of the faculty
In 1946, when Seoul National University was established as a national university, Jang Ball and Lee Sun-suk were in charge of executing the plan. Long Bull was the head of the Department of Academic Affairs of the Academic Affairs Department of the US Military Administration from December 1945, and Lee Sun-suk was an advisor to the Arts Department of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, and Culture since 1946, when the Academic Affairs Bureau was changed to the Ministry of Education. As a result, Oh Chun Suk, who was the founder of Seoul National University as the dean of the Ministry of Education at the time, naturally asked the two to search for a person to establish the art department.
He was a professor of philosophy at Columbia University after receiving his master’s degree from Cornell University and Northwestern University. Lee Soon-suk returned to Korea after graduating from Tokyo Art School, but Jang dropped out of the Tokyo Art School in 1919, after three years, and went to the United States in September 1922 to go to college there. He attended the National Design Academy in New York for more than half a year, and in 1923 he enrolled at the School of Practical Arts at the Columbia University Teachers College and studied for a year and a half. All of this did not lead to graduation. However, from the earliest days until the end of June 1948, there were only four Confucian scholars among the 152 professors, associate professors, associate professors, and lecturers at the faculty of Kyungsung University and the Seoul National University College of Liberal Arts. I have earned it. At this time, his United States, especially his college math history at Columbia University, was Harry B. Ansted (1946. August 22, 1947, October 25, 1946), who was appointed General Secretary of Kyungsung University in October 1945. For the US Military Administration, who was appointed as the first president of the National University of Seoul, Jang would have been seen as the best understander and practitioner of the United States government’s intention to establish a national university in Korea in the form of a ” Furthermore, he was a devout Catholic, a sister to the political scene after liberation, a vice-presidency from the end of 1950 until the beginning of the 1961 coup d’etat in 1961, and two prime ministers twice. He is a Christian, believer, The administration, the USFK, and the U.S. military were also in favor of selecting Koreans for office.
Chang Bull, who has this background, together with Lee Sun-suk, formed the founding campuses of the art department. According to the staff list on the university’s headquarters, there were 9 professors in the art department of the art college in 1946, and nine professors were working at the art department. All except for Lee Jae – hoon, a professor of philosophy who was appointed on September 22 of this year, was appointed on October 22, a month later. This seems to be due to the delay in the preparations for the establishment, as can be seen from the fact that the art department started lecturing later than other universities.
Jang was appointed as the head of the art department. In the case of practical works, the first painting department (Oriental painting) was in charge of Kim Yong Joon and Chang Woo Sung, the second painting department (Western painting) was Jang, Gyu Jin Sup and Kim Hwan Ki, the sculpture department was Yun Seung Uk and the drawings were Lee Soon Suk and Lee Byung Hyun. Lee Jae Hoon was a professor in charge of aesthetics. In the late 1940s, he published a series of university collections at the Meiwa Cultural History. Lee Jae-hoon wrote “Western Philosophy History” published in December 1948 and Kim Yong-joon wrote “Chosun Art Contest” in June 1949. Park, who has been known to be one of the first professors of the College of Art (hereinafter, the University), has been a professor at Kyungsung University since March 15, 1946, became a professor at the Seoul National University College of Art and Design on October 22, I came to the art department on April 1st.
Among the professors at the time of the establishment of the art department, all the professors except Jang Woo-sung who had no experience of studying studied in Japan. Among the practical professors, Lee Byung-hyun, who graduated from the Design Department of the Japanese Art School, and Kim Hwan-ki, who graduated from the College of Art, Japan, and the rest of the professors studied at the Tokyo Art School. Jang dropped out in 1922, Lee Sun-suk and Kim Yong-joon graduated in 1931, Gill Jinsup in 1932, and Yun Seung-wook in 1939. In other words, all four of them were from Tokyo Art School.
On the other hand, most of the early professors did not study abroad at the same time, or even if they were not from Tokyo Art School, most of them were connected to each other by priesthood or gobo alumni. Yoon Seung-wook learned art from Changwol in a school like Huimunggo. Lee Jae-hoon graduated from Sophia University in Japan, but at the same time as long-haired, he was a teacher of a whispering boy. Kim Yong Joon and Gill Jinsup had formed a million-won society in 1930 when they were studying abroad. After returning to Korea, they taught high school students in a drawing class at Central Gobo opened by Lee Jong-woo. Kim Yong Joon and Gill Jinsup founded a one-time meeting with Kim Hwan-ki and Song Byung Don in 1934, and the latter was appointed to the art department in 1949. Once in 1937, the name of the moshi circuit was changed. The latter participated in the exhibition. Kim Yong-joon and Kim Hwan-ki were particularly close to each other as they left the house of Seongbuk-dong (Noshi-sanbang), which formerly lived in 1934, to the latter in 1944. After liberation, Kim Yong-joon, Kim Hwan-ki, Gin Jin-sup, Lee Sun-seok, and Chang Woo-sung worked together as executives of the Chosun Art Center, which lasted from August 18 to November 20, 1945. Noh Suhyon, who was appointed as the first professor of painting in 1949, was chairman of this group’s Asian painting.
The system of early arts department, where all the departments were from Tokyo art school, shows the influence of this Japanese school. The remnants of this school include the Department of Painting, the Department of Sculpture, and the Arts and Crafts Department, which started with the Art Department. The art school was divided into pure art and applied arts. , And the arts and crafts department of the Tokyo Art School was found in 1933, called “the design department”. The word design is a translation of design in Japan in 1877, and Lee also referred to his first solo exhibition title in 1931 as a “private art exhibition of crafts.”
Nevertheless, he majored in Western painting, but his works include Kim Yong Joon, who published traditional paintings, and Jang Woo-sung, who studied traditional painting in Korea, Jang, Bal, who studied Western painting and art education, and Ginsun Seop, The first faculty, composed of Kim Hwan-ki, who attempted to contemplate naturalism, sculptor Yoon Seung-wook, craftsman Lee Soon-suk, and drawing artist Lee Byung-hyun and philosopher major Lee Jae-hoon, reflected diversity and expertise necessary for university art education as humanities.
3) The situation of opening
At the time of establishment, the Art Department was established with three departments: Painting Department, Sculpture Department, and Drawing Department. However, at the time of opening, the Department of Painting was divided into two and divided into four sections: 1st Painting Department (Oriental Painting), 2nd Painting Department (Western Painting), Sculpture Department, . These paintings were combined in 1951 with the Department of Painting, and in 1983 they were divided into Oriental Paintings and Western Paintings. The arts department opened its doors on September 18 because it selected students later than other colleges. In the first year, students were selected through Korean language, foreign language, mathematics, practical skill, oral interview and physical examination. According to data from the Office of Administration, 61 people entered the school this year and 26 graduated. As mentioned above, except for Lee Jae-hoon, who was appointed in September among 9 professors at the time of the establishment of the arts department, all of them were officially appointed as October 22, and the professors were administered before the student entrance examination.
In 1946, the Opening Arts Division of the Opening City Art School did not have a separate building, so the first lecture room and the second lecture room of the building where the faculty of the Kyungsung Empire University were located, as a campus, and the desk of the aesthetics library of Kyungsung Imperial University And used it as a teaching room. Since Seoul National University was founded within a short period of time without preparing additional buildings or facilities along the National University, the gap between the College of Law and the College of Law in April of 1948 showed that the problem of lacking buildings was a universal issue The art department, which had no predecessor, was more serious. On January 4, 1949, a year and a half after the opening of the school, Dr. Gyu – dong Choi was reorganized as the fourth president of Seoul National University. As a result, the art department was relocated to the building used by the law school, but due to the late director of the art department, the students of the law school occupied the building and the students collided with each other. In April 1949, the art department moved to the former Kyungsung Technical College building. On the other hand, the record that there was an art college at 195 Hyehwa-dong near the school suggests that the school considers the professor’s residence.
Meanwhile, at the end of 1946, Jang Bal, Art Director said that he requested the design of the Seoul National University after designing and explaining to student Lee Ki-hoon a little. Ki-hoon brought a laurel safari in the frame of the ancient Roman director, and a shield in a foreign sentence, and in the latter, he connected the three words a, a, and c in the order of national, Seoul and university. He also made a school badge with a pen, a torch and a book as symbolic, and a Latin sentence in the book (VERITAS LUX MEA) literally announcing that Seoul National University is an Academic Hall.
2. After the establishment and until the outbreak of the Korean War: National opposition movement and Art college
1) National Opposition Movement
The anti-nationalist opposition movement began with the opposition movement against the education policy of the US military government and the military government already rejected the plan to establish a comprehensive university in Seoul National University announced on June 19, about a month before the national alternative . As a result, not only the professors and students of the existing educational institutions to be transferred to the university but also the people and organizations related to education and culture were involved in the opposition movement before Seoul National University opened. Nevertheless, when the U.S. military agency opened the Seoul National University in September, faculty and staff stood up as a group resignation, and students were refused alliance leave or school refusal. In February 1947, the alliance was extended to the whole country and elementary school students participated. The opposition movement continued until the end of the year.
When all Seoul National University college students participated in the anti-national opposition movement, the military government issued a 3-month suspension order to the college, law school, and college students, and suspended the participating students. As a result, the number of colleges participating in alliance leave has increased. As a result, 4,956 students who were forced to leave the alliance among 8,040 students were dropped from Seoul National University in May 1947, and 3,518 of them were replied to the Liberation Day in August of that year. Because the essence of the national alternative was the opposition of the Korean people to the establishment of a national university in Korea led by the US military government in the confrontation with the Soviet army occupying the northern side of the 38th line, Not only students but also nationalist professors participated. However, as the university authorities interpreted this movement ideologically, none of the students who were repudiated either by voluntary or by others were refused. As a result, more than 1,000 students left the school because they did not return, even if they were abandoned or repatriated. More than 380 professors were either released or resigned.
2) Professors of Art University and National Opposition Movement
Professors and students in the art department also opposed the national alternative. According to the Office of Administration, 26 of the 61 students who entered the school in 1946 graduated, and 11 of them graduated on May 12, 1950, before the outbreak of the Korean War. Of the 14 students who entered the school in 1947, only two graduated from each painting department and sculpture department. At the height of democracy protests, the number of students enrolled in the art department was about 75. It is believed that 20 students including Kim Jin-han, who led the demonstration, were expelled. Because of the large number of students who did not register, the Art Department selected students to join in 1947. Compared with the number of students enrolled in 1948, the number of students enrolled in 1947 was 14 because the number of new students who did not enroll was large, and the transfer students were transferred to the 1946 student number. Of the 45 students enrolled in 1948, only 11 graduated.
The professors who had a conflict with Chang – haeul ‘s director in the surge of the national alternative also left school. First, at the 2nd Painting Department, Gil Jinsup, the son of Rev. Gil Sun-joo, one of the 33 representatives of the national movement, resigned from office on April 15, 1947 and was deposed. Lee Byeong-hyun is also recorded as a member of the university’s headquarters on the same day as Gye Jin-seop. In August 1948, Gil Jin-sup was a resident of North Korea. Then Kim Yong – joon, who stressed that the settlement of Japanese paintings in the first painting department was an urgent task given to the generation after liberation, resigned on May 31, 1948 and went to Dongguk University.
Before the outbreak of the Korean War in the wake of the Korean War, some professors resigned due to the opposition to the national opposition movement. On the other hand, Professor TO was born, and nine professors in the arts department newly joined. In 1947, Shin Hyeong vacation was assigned to the second painting department where Ginsunseob resigned. In 1948, Kim Jong-young was in the sculpture department, and Yoon Young-guk in the drawing of Lee Byung-hyun’s resignation. This is considered to be the “seat” where Yoo said that he said, “Please support Kim Whanki as he has a seat on the map.” The ball format was also appointed this year. The record about it is very rare, and there is a recollection of Jang Woo-sung that he traced it with Kim Jong-young and Song Byun in Song Do during the Korean War. The next year, 1949, No Soohyun and Song Byung Don were appointed. Park was appointed as a lecturer on September 1, 1949, and was appointed full – time before the outbreak of the Korean War in May 31 of the following year. On the other hand, Park Yong-bok was recruited on the same day as Park, Kwang-Sung in the “Faculty Leader’s Office” at the headquarters’s administrative affairs department, but it was recorded that he was deposed as of November 10, 1952, but further data on it is difficult to find. Oriental painting artist Noh Suhyon was from Seohwa Art Association. Kim Jong – young and Song Byung – don became Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts, Yoo Young – kook became Tokyo Culture College, and in 1961 became the two dean of the school. Many of the new professors who were appointed as ‘large-scale’ in this way were educated in Japan like professors at the time of establishment and exchanged with each other before they became colleagues like their senior professors. Kim Jong – young and Park Jung – sung were long – haired students. Kim was a two year junior at Yoo Seung-wook’s gobo and college. He and Paek – seong stayed together in a different school in Japan. As mentioned earlier, Song Byung-don was a one-time member with Kim Yong-joon, Gil Jin-sup and Kim Hwan-ki in 1934. Kim Hwang-ki and Yoo Young-gook participated together before the founding of the Free Artists Association, a group of artists who opposed the school of religion in 1937, when they lived in Japan. In 1947, they formed a group of gentleman groups together with Lee Gyu-sang and Jang Wook-jin, and they opened their first exhibition in December of the following year, forming the basis of Korea’s abstract art. Jang Woo-jin also taught at our school from 1953 to 1961, which I will explain in detail later.
Several professors have resigned in 1950 and 1948. Kim Hwan-ki, who lectured at the art department from the time of its establishment, resigned on January 31. Yoo Young-guk, who was recruited in 1948, gave a resignation to the president on June 4, 1950, and Shin Hong-ho, who was appointed in 1947, on June 6, On the other hand, Lee Sun-suk, who was appointed at the time of the establishment of the US Department of Education, submitted a staff member to the art director on June 15. All three were deposed on November 20. The reason for their resignation is unknown or different. In 1947, the difference in the tendencies and opinions of professors revealed through the wave of the national alternative in 1947 and the aftermath of the influences still influenced the atmosphere in the university in 1950. So Kim resigned as Kim Yong Joon, who was close to him, . Yoo Young-kuk, who was close to the former, said that he resigned in 1950 due to a conflict with a long-haired misunderstanding. This was the time of ideological control through anti-communism after the foundation of the nation. There is hardly any record of the reasons for the resignation of Shin Hong-ho in the same day as Gye Jin-seop. In 1961, he worked as an art teacher at Dangjin Middle School during the Korean War and in Kyungbok High School in the mid 1950s.
On the other hand, the reason for his resignation seems to be irrelevant to his conflict with the long-haired and ideological ones. He worked in the Ministry of Defense after the outbreak of the Korean War in 1952 and was reappointed to the Fine Arts Department on November 3, 1952. He was led by Jang Bull and was a member of the Catholic Art Gallery She also participated in the exhibition “Sexual Art Exhibition” with “Cross and Candlestick”.
As mentioned earlier, despite the fact that 18 professors were employed until May 31, 1950, many professors left the school for reasons such as North Korea, abduction, and resignation, leaving only half of them at the end of 1950. This has weakened the diversity of the faculty we had at the time of establishment. According to the “Overview of Seoul National University” submitted by each college in order to report to the Ministry of Education in November 1951, nine professors are listed as professors. They are professors: Jang Bull, Lee Soon Suk, Park Hyun Hyun, and Soo Hyun Associate Professor Song Byung Don, assistant professors: Park Kap Sung, Jong Young Kim, Jang Woo Sung, Lee Jae Hoon. However, as mentioned above, in his handwritten personnel records at the university headquarters, Lee was released from office on June 20, 1950, after his resignation on June 15, 1950, and then reappointed in 1952. Park Young-bok was recorded on November 20, 1952, and the ball was recorded as a deputy on April 1, 1953, but not on the professor’s list. On March 10, 1953, an amphibian was recruited and transferred to the medical school on April 1, but there is no other data on it. According to the college headquarters and the personnel records of the school, when the art department was promoted to art college on April 20, 1953, eight of the above nine students were excluded, Lee Jae – hoon, who retired on May 31, 1952. This faculty was maintained until April 1954 when two students from the Fine Arts Department were appointed professors (see Table 1).
3. 6.25 War and Art College, Professors and Students
The Seoul National University, which was founded with no buildings and equipment in place, replaced the faculty members and recruited students for expulsion, suspension, and reinstatement, and recruited transfer students. The College of Liberal Arts, Law, Law, Commerce, and Medical College issued graduates once on July 11, 1947, but the first graduates came out in the fourth year, 1950, as soon as they got their first graduation ceremony on May 12. . The quality of education has been worsened by the war that has continued for three years after the outbreak and the equipment has been destroyed. As mentioned above, many professors and students are abducted, This was greatly slowed down.
Since the arts department did not have an independent building, it was less harmful to the facilities than other colleges and universities, but suffered a great loss in terms of people. The art department was so small that Jang-hyeon was able to grasp the students as a whole and to point out the actions and blessings of the students. As a result, the members of the university are well aware of each other’s tendencies, and conflicts among the members are easily revealed. As described above, the impact of all countries has been great in the influx of students and professors. The disagreements among the members that surfaced at this time were embodied in ideological mutual retaliation as the war broke out.
Some students, including Kim Jin-hong, who had left the school in opposition to the national alternative, returned to the school where most of the professors had escaped and became paralyzed after the war, leading to the operation until 9.28 Seoul restoration. Kim Yong – joon, who resigned in 1948, returned to school and Jang – bull escaped. Yoon Seung-wook, who had persuaded students who opposed the national alternative by long-haul as a student chief at the time of the national surge, was stopped at his home while he was fleeing, and was caught by the students.
When Seoul was restored and the North Korean forces left Seoul, this time the other side was ‘retaliated’. Among the artists including the professor of the art department, the “Donggang”, or those who went to evacuate, were subjected to “residents”, ie “inspectors” who were left in Seoul because they could not evacuate. After the ceasefire, Schools were divided because of “thought judging” on the remaining students.
The claim that the examination of the students was done by the students who have done professor ‘s protection is connected with the situation of Seoul National University at that time. In October 1950, Seoul National University selected one professor at each college and examined the professors who had not been able to make up their minds by examining all the professors who were not able to make up their posts. The committee reviewed the results sent to each college and reviewed the results. The entire committee of the university headquarters informed the Ministry of Education of the results of the examination of the college in November, which was a disciplinary measure against a total of 163 professors, including 114 students, 15 students, and 34 students. The Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Justice reviewed the contents of the notice and dismissed it as a minority, honesty or punishment. As mentioned earlier, Yoo Young-gook, Shin Hong-hue and Lee Soon-suk were dismissed on November 20, but all of them were irrelevant to the above discipline because they submitted their resignations before the outbreak of the Korean War. In addition, Lee Soon-seok was appointed as a specialist in the planning department of the Ministry of National Defense by the Ministry of National Defense in November of the same year. It would be because of the outbreak of war that these resignations took four months to process.
Meanwhile, the activities of the art department during the war can be divided into two parts. One is the operation of the school, and the other is the activities of the professors and students. The universities in Seoul started unification after the restoration of Seoul on Sept. 28 when the war could not be operated individually. The Ministry of Education decided to establish a single union university by including 31 public and private universities in Seoul city before the war on November 2. However, the wartime union college which was established and operated, went down to Busan and resumed from March 17th as all other institutions with 1.4 retreat after the re-south of the People’s Army the next year. On May 4, Busan Exhibition Union College received approval from Minister of Culture and Education in accordance with the “Special Measures for Exhibition on University Education” promulgated by the Minister of Education of the Ministry of Education, · It was organized into the Faculty of Law and Economics, the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, the Faculty of Arts, the Physical Education Department and the Family Department. The university was dissolved on May 31, 1952, when each university had its own teaching system. At the time of evacuation, the art department first used four Japanese-style house rooms in Busan, and later a Japanese-style restaurant building called a sea pavilion in Songdo as a classroom. The art department was promoted to a college in April 1953 and returned to Seoul in September of the same year.
During the war, North Korean troops stationed in Seoul allowed artists to draw the portrait of Kim Il Sung and Stalin. The Armed Forces formed a campaign group. As a vice chairman of the Korea Art Association, who was formed in 1950, along with Gohee Dong, who was the chairman of the Korea Art Association, Jangbale, who rushed to establish the company, was close to General Kim Jung-ryul (former Minister of National Defense) who founded the Air Force. . So he, Song Byung Don, Lee Sun-suk and Chang Woo-sung were members of the Air Force’s Angry Angels. Lee, who resigned from the school before the outbreak of the war, was involved in the Ministry of National Defense earlier, as mentioned above. In 1955, he was appointed as an assistant professor of Daewoo University in 1955, and was a member of the Ministry of National Defense Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
Meanwhile, in Busan, professors and students have also worked part-time in porcelain manufacturing companies that produce porcelain exported to foreign countries. The students were provided with workshops and accommodation, and it was reported that Kim Se-jung, Seo Seok, Munjak Jin, Jang Un-Sang, Park Se-won, Kwon Young-woo, Soon Il Park, Chang Woo-sung took part in this for a while.
Long haul has not kept the art department from continuing during the war. According to his resume submitted to Seoul National University, he stayed in the United States as an exchange professor at the invitation of the United States in December 1950 to visit the University of Pittsburgh and major art institutions in the United States, did. In his reign, Lee Jae – hoon, a professor of philosophy, replaced the director of the art department as a director.
4. New start and pain for change: 1954-1960
1) New start: Promoted to art college, return to Seoul, start graduate professor generation
On April 14, 1953, when the class was still held at the evacuation site, the school ‘s independent installation was promoted to university on April 20. She was appointed as the first dean of the school on April 20, and the dean on October 16 of the same year. Then, on September 18, the university headquarters returned to Seoul and received the buildings from the US military who used the building during the war. Our school also returned to Dongsung-dong and resumed classes with former campuses.
The armistice agreement, which was signed on July 27, 1953, further strengthened anti-communism after the war ended. Moreover, the situation in which the professor and the students had to start newly on the ruins, the ideological confrontation among the university members was restrained from rising above the surface, and the space for expressing political issues was reduced. After the university was promoted to university, we had to make new leaps and expand the structure. Between 1954 and 1960, the number of faculty members varied with the addition of seven young and diverse buildings in two ways.
The most meaningful change in the professorship is that the first-time enrolled student of our school became a professor at our school. On April 30, 1954, Kim Se-jung was appointed to the Sculpture Department and Park Se-won was appointed as the full-time lecturer at the Painting Department. They were also graduates of one of 26 graduates. This is the beginning of the ‘second’ era of our school as the graduates of our school have lectured at our alma mater and the first generation of graduate professors have been formed.
In this period, not only the first generation professor of the graduate students ‘birth’ but also the character of the lecture was new. According to the data in the headquarters, in 1955, as one of the two graduates who were appointed as full-time lecturers in the previous year, the one-time entry student, Seo Seok Ok, lectured on the conversation skills as a time lecturer alongside contemporary writers such as Kwon Ok-yeon and Jang Woo-jin. These two graduates were appointed full-time lecturers on the same day in 1961. According to the remaining records, foreign instructors were consistently employed during the school year during this period. The list of lecturers who lectured from 1949 to 1957 includes John Elfurank in Applied Art and English in the first semester of 1952 and Joseph Szekel in lectures on painting. In 1954, there was no record. In 1954, McGuigan – de – Gemier (first language) was used in the first semester, Dorothe Nand worked in the second semester in 1955, In 1956, Roberto Elclay recorded the basic composition of the weaving pattern over two semesters, and Gabriel Vils Maier lectured on the decorative characters. In 1957, there were no foreign teachers.
According to the “resume of faculty and staff” (before 1956) left in the headquarters, Seoul National University used Assistant Professor Daewoo or Daewoo Instructor System in accordance with the provisions of ” This is a kind of lecture teaching system in which a teacher is “entrusted” with a teacher as an assistant professor, and a salary is set as a daily allowance and re-assigned every year.
Since 1954, four have joined the school as an assistant professor. On the same day in 1954, Kim Jung – hwan was appointed to lecture on stage arts, Kim Byung – ki was assigned to lecture on painting and lecture on conversation, and Prof. Song was appointed to lecture on conversation in 1955. Records of these remain as a list of Assistant Professor Daewoo and their entrusted documents. On the other hand, Jang Wook-jin is on the list of Assistant Professor Daewoo, but he has not yet found any documents to be submitted. On the list above, he was recorded as an assistant professor at the Department of Veterinary Medicine on May 15, 1957. The list of time lecturers from 1949 to 1957 mentioned above does not have a record of 1953, and it is recorded that he lectured as a time lecturer since 1954. However, he recalled that he entered his class in Busan in 1953. On the other hand, graduates who were students at the time reported through records and interviews that he had resigned even though he was not required to withdraw from the students during the 4.19 Revolution. However, in the headquarters data on which the four Daewoo assistant professors mentioned above were commissioned and issued, the records of Kim Jang-hwan and Sohn Soon-pak were referred to as “members of the National Assembly” on July 15, 1960, It is stated that the term of the Assistant Professor Daewoo is ended. However, it is difficult to confirm the fact that the list of the lecturers of the second semester of 1960, which was a time of confusion after the 4.19 revolution, has not yet been found in the files of the headquarters.
These four Daewoo assistants all studied in Japan but were not graduates of the Tokyo Art School. Kim Jung Hwan graduated from the Fine Arts Department of the Japanese Art School. Kim Byung Gi graduated from the Fine Arts College of Tokyo Academy of Fine Arts. In 1959, a full-time instructor was introduced. Kim Jung – ja was employed in Applied Fine Arts, and he graduated from college in the United States as a female professor. The reason for his appointment was that he was a female professor rather than a professor who had studied at American universities for the second time in the history of our school. As a result, the students of this period were able to listen to lectures from other professors and professors about the age range including foreigners and the background of education and the trend of works.
Following Kim Jung-ja, the experience of American college mathematics became a professor of the university immediately. Though not a diploma, Kwon Soon-hyeong was appointed to the Applied Arts Department in 1961, and Min-Cheol Hong, who was appointed to the Department of Applied Fine Arts in 1963 from 1959 to 1960, I have been studying at an American university for one year. They belong to the first foreign mathematical generation of our graduates. After graduating from college in the United States, Jeon Sung Woo was employed in 1967. There were several professors who had been trained in the US or UK universities before 1981, when US students from our university began to be appointed professors. However, the second female professor came to our school in December 1981, 22 years and a half after Kim Jong – ja was appointed.
On the other hand, in the personnel records of the university headquarters, from April 1, 1953, shortly before the promotion of the art department to the art college, until the end of the year, unusual items were found in the school staff. According to the headquarters data, two professors, one former assistant and one current assistant, are listed as “medical school and art college”. As a professor, Kim Jong – young and Song Byung – don received a “Call for duty of medical school and college of arts” from April 1, 1953 to October 15 of that year, and were appointed professor of art college on December 28. Kim Se-jung and Park Se-won, who graduated from the Graduate School on March 28, 1953 and were appointed as full-time lecturers on April 30, 1954, were also given the task of “calling for medical school and art college work” in 1953. On April 1, 1953, the former received a “business card” without specifying his position, and the latter received an appointment to assist on May 15, Like professors, I received the title of “President of the College of Medicine” on October 15th. The more unusual thing was that it was transferred to the medical school on the same day as the first day of the appointment of the four seats on March 10, 1953.
2) 4.19 Revolution and Confilict in School
In 1960, during the 4.19 Revolution, Dongmyoong, where the school was located, was one of the major stages of the revolution. Our students were also in protesters with students from Dongseong-dong, the college of liberal arts, college of law, medical school, Dongseong high school. Among the seven students of Seoul National University who died in the demonstration during the protest, “4.19” is also a third grader of the school. On the other hand, the professors announced a professor’s declaration on the requirements of President Rhee’s re-election. It was reported that 258 professors participated in the “4.25 Professor Statement Declaration” announced on April 26, the day before President Lee’s visit to the university on April 26, 41 of whom were announced in April 2010. Among them, 21 professors were from Seoul National University, and four of them (Kim, Jong – yong, Song Byung – do, Park, Kap – sung, Park, Ei – Hyun) were professors. All of them were close to long-haired. Kim Jong-young and Park Jung-sung were long-haired Gobo disciples, and Kim Jong-young and Song Byung-dong were jury members of the National Assembly during that year when Chang Ji-wal was vice chairman of the examination.
The distrust and protest against the old generation of the 4.19 Revolution, which began with protests against the 3.15 illegal election of the Liberal Party, was expressed at the University in opposition to the dean of the Dean and his administration. At that time, there were Professor Jang Bull, Lee Soon Suk, Kim Jongyoung, Park Eunhyun, Soo Hyun Song, Byung Don Kim, Park Seong Sung, Kim Se-jung, Park Se-Won, Kim Jeong-ja and Kim Jung-hwan.
In May 1960, students resigned from the presidency and professors Park, Kap-sung and Paik Hae-sung through a resolution. The students demanded that the aesthetic professor Park Kang-sung should leave the aesthetics department and should send the aesthetics department to the college. The dissatisfaction with Pak Suk Soon was about his cultural style. Criticism of the specific style of painting has been influenced by the many art declarations that have emerged since 1958 and the atmosphere of the avant – garde art of abstract art, which has become popular in the Korean art form since 1958, It is a result. In October, 1960, 7 students and 10 students from painting department and sculpture department formed wall manners’ association and set up or set up works on the walls of Deoksugung Palace and opened «wall paintings». Song Byeong-don, who was an advisor, strongly opposed the school based on the policy of “prohibiting students from suburban schooling.” However, according to the October 1, the day when the professors were judges, It is a work made of materials such as moths and holes and punched holes and cloths. At the time, the exhibits of these students, who were in the third grade, criticized the school policy at the time when they were able to participate from the fourth grade on the National Day, but it was actually a reaction against the old generation. Graduates and six students who were seniors and students who were more than 1 year old formed a 60-year art association with their peers in July of that year. After four days after the opening of the wall paintings, they also painted abstract paintings on Deoksugung Palace wall. »Opened. 4.19 The young people ‘s will to reform at the time, spearheaded by the revolution, was expressed by the students and graduates of our school as a reaction to the older generation and the artistic art. It is also this year that graduates of the Oriental Painting School of the University have formed a silkworm meeting in opposition to traditional oriental painting techniques and teaching methods and opened their pre-foundation in March.
At the time of the 1960s, students’ demands were partially fulfilled, but some were carried out in unintended directions. On October 10, 1960, the Department of Aesthetics moved to the College of Liberal Arts. In the same year, Park, Eung-Hyun and Park, Gab-Sung were transferred together with the Department of Aesthetics. But Park, Gab-Sung returned and was appointed as 2nd Dean of Art School. Park, Deuk-Soon was not reappointed at the end of July 15, 1960. In 1961, Jang, Bal established the Department of Art after the departure of the Department of Aesthetics. However, this department was maintained for only one year.
5. After Jang, Bal
4.19 After the revolution took place, exactly 5.1 months after the Democratic regime overturned in just 13 months, there was a coup d’etat. Long haul was demanded once again after the end of the Korean War, then by the students at the time of the 4.19 Revolution, but did not resign. He then resigned on May 9, 1961, to become Ambassador to Italy, and on May 15, he was approved by the President of Seoul National University as “the ambassador to Italy.” However, he did not become the ambassador of the coup that took place the following day, when he was the prime minister at that time.
A great change took place in the faculty after long leave. He resigned in July following the guidance of the new military government. Ten days later, Jang Woo-jin left Daewoo as the last assistant professor. Subsequently, on August 31, six new professors were appointed. On August 31, 1961, Kim Jeong – rok entered the art department, which had been in existence for a year, but after the department was abolished in a year, he was sent to the aesthetic department on April 25 of the following year. Kyung Chae Ryu, Seoseok, Munhak Jin, Jung Chang Seop, and Kwon Soonhyung in Applied Fine Arts. Ryu Kyung-chae was the only graduate of our school. Three professors of painting department were one entrance student including transfer student, and Kwon Soonhyung was four entrance student. As a result, 9 of the first students enrolled in the university were university graduates, and 5 of them came to their alma mater.
In the second semester of 1962, three of the 14 professors who were appointed in the late 1940s (Lee Sun-seok, Kim Jong-young, Park Kyeong-seong) remained, while Roh Soo-hyun and Song By-min left their retirement years in 1961 and 1962, respectively. In May of this year, Song Young-soo, who entered the sculpture department in May, and Professor Park Soo-su, who entered the painting department four times in November, had 13 professors.
There was a big change in the faculty, and Jang, Bal left the school, but for 15 years after leading the establishment of the school, his presence as a director and dean of the art was not immediately disappearing. However, in 1981, 20 years after his departure, there were various situations in which his influence had to be weakened in the nature of faculty members. In 1980, Kim Jong-yong, who was directly related to long-haired, retired from the first-generation professors. In 1981, the number of foreign students began to be recruited. In addition, this year introduced a new entrance examination system called Graduation Capacity, which made it difficult for us to maintain the existing school atmosphere and education system in and out of school. Through the Graduation Tuition System, which started in 1981, not only the university but all the universities had to change.
First of all, four professors directly related to Jang, Bal became deans in turn, and the last dean of them, Park Seo-won, was terminated in 1981 (Table 2). Park, Sung – sung was a student of the former school in Hwamun – gobo and a colleague in the school for 12 years. Kim Jong-young became dean after his successor, who served as dean for seven years until 1968. He was also a long-haired disciple, and for 13 years was a co-worker. Kim Se-jung, who became dean in 1972 after his successor, Kim Jong-yong, who served as dean from 1968 to 1972, was appointed as a professor at the time of Jang, dean as a sculptor and disciple of his predecessor and educated under the education system led by the latter , And seven years was a co-worker. In addition, he produced Changhwal as the architectural director, Hyehwa-dong Cathedral, completed in 1959, and produced the exterior sculpture , There was also a work by Maria C. Henderson, who served as a sculptor and lecturer from September 1, 1962 to February 28, 1963, as a wife of Kim Jong-young, Lee Sun-suk and Moon Seung-kwan of the US Embassy. . His successor, who served as dean of the university until 1977, was Park Sewon, the motivator for his admission and graduation, and the ‘motivation for entering’. He was not only a Catholic, but also a long-lived descent, like the professors mentioned above and Kim Young-young, On August 31, 1980, Kim Jong – young, one of the four deans and long – time Gobal disciple, retired after his retirement. He was the last of the professors who were assigned to our school in 1954, when he was appointed professor. Most of the professors who were appointed in the 1960s studied at our school during the time when Jang was the dean, but the relationship with him was different from the professors who were previously appointed.
As mentioned above, 1981 was the year when a graduate came to the professor after graduating from the university and then returning to the United States after studying in a Western country. Jeon Joon (Sculpture Department) and Yoo Ri – ji (Applied Art Department) were employed at intervals of about one month. Since then, professors of graduate schools have begun to increase in Western Nations. Of course, there were three professors who were previously accredited by universities in Western countries, but they were not graduates of our school. Kim Jung – ja was not from the same university as Im Young – bang, who was appointed in 1965 after studying in France, and Jeon Sung – woo, as mentioned before, dropped out but went to college in the United States. Between 1981 and 1988, two Oriental paintings, three Western paintings, three sculptures, one metalworking craft, one industrial design, and one ceramics craftsman were recruited, five of whom were foreign degrees.
The tendency to increase the number of new professors with foreign degrees has become even more pronounced in the 1990s. Since 1994, the faculty graduates of our university, which have obtained doctoral degrees in foreign countries, have started to be appointed professors, and the number has increased. Although there are many professors who have studied in the US, the number of studying countries has also diversified. Since 1993, as of August 2016, 37 new students have come in. Of these, only 19%, of which 7 are final schools, are domestic universities. The proportion of foreigners (German and American) out of 37 is 20%. By country of study, about 17% of the 30 students are in the United States, 7 are in Germany, 5 are in the UK, and 1 is Japan.
6. Yeongeon-dong Campus (April 4, 1972. 8): Art college next to the center of student movement
On February 20, 1963, the transfer of the school was decided, and in the first month, the Painting Department, Design Department, Affiliate Office, and the Office of the Dean moved to the veterinary school building of the Yeongeon-dong veterinary school, The Sculpture Department joined later.
In the 1960s, 19 people were recruited, including Kim Jung-rok, who stayed for 8 months. As mentioned earlier, six professors were newly recruited on August 31, 1961, after Jang Bull was deposed from the National Assembly. Then, by 1969, 13 more people came in. Five in the 1970s, 12 in the 1980s, 12 in the 1990s, 15 in the 2000s, and 10 in the 2010s. Many of the professors who came in the late 1960s took lessons from the faculty. This led to the birth of a second generation professor.
The time when the school uses the teachers’ school is different from other times in many ways. 14 professors were recruited during this period. Among them, Jeon Sung-woo resigned after four years, and Yoon Myeong-ro entered the place. Most of the new professors except for Kim Kyung-man (born in 1928) and Lim Young-bang (born in 1929) were born in the mid-1930s and Yang Seung-chun was born in 1940. At least three of them have replaced the retired professor, so the average age of the faculty has also been lowered. On April 25, 1962, two professors of aesthetics (Park, Kap-sung, who was in charge of our school since 1948, and Kim Jeong-rok, who was appointed in August 1961) I came in. The former is a graduate of our aesthetics department. Both of them lectured at our school before the appointment. On the other hand, students were developing a consensus on social criticism with other college students who led the movement next to the center of the student movement.
In the 1960s, which began with the 4.19 Revolution, there was a demonstration against the alternative of the country, as in the late 1940s, and in the 1970s and 1970s, and in October 15th, 1971, (October 17, 1972) and the “Spring of Seoul” and the 80s, which began with the Gwangju Democratic Uprising, students’ demonstrations, provisional school closures, and overtime classes were repeated. At the time of the teacher’s day at the center of the student movement, our students participated in demos with students from other universities just as the 4.19 revolution took place. This contrasts with the fact that we were able to distance our students from the student movement during the period of September 1972 to 1975 when we were in the outskirts of Haegye-dong, or on the spacious campus where we could live anonymously.
Since March 1964, protests against the Korea-Japan Humiliation Talks have begun. As thousands of students gathered at the College of Liberal Arts and became a police officer in the main building, the students also demonstrated with the college students. In 1969, when the school was temporarily closed due to a demonstration of students protesting against the Constitutional amendment declared by President Park Jung-hee and the college was canceled as a whole, the Student Council requested the suspension of the suspension on October 4. On Oct. 25th of that year, a group of students (Oh, Yoon), a student of painting (Oh Kyung-hwan) and a student of applied arts (Lim Se Taek) formed a group realism dancer together with a student of aesthetics (Kim Ji-ha) I wanted to exhibit. However, the exhibition did not open with the obstruction of the professors and the Central Intelligence Agency. 4.19 If the students and graduates of our school had tried to resist the old generation in the following year of the 1960 revolution and the 5.16 coup d’etat, these four students would go to “4.19 Spirit” as a realistic art criticizing reality I wanted to go. These student demonstrations and art activities were the same as those of Dong Seong-dong and Yeongeon-dong campus.
7. Haegye-dong Campus (September, 1972-2): Stalemated Status of Art College
In September 1972, the school moved to a provisional campus in the liberal arts and government campus in Haegye – dong in accordance with the “Seoul National University Integration Plan” of the government. This was a provisional measure to prepare for the general university campus era of Seoul National University, which was groundbreaking ceremony in April, 1971. As soon as the students were transferred to the school, they were banned from entering the school in accordance with the total closing of the school at Seoul National University on October 17, October.
There was no professor change during the summer school season. After Yoon Myeong-Ro was appointed in May 1972 at the Yeongeon-dong campus, there were no newly appointed professors until Boo Soo-Eon was appointed in October 1977, when the Gwanak campus was in session. There was no change in the curriculum at this time. However, there was a change in the entrance examination method, especially in the field of practical examinations of the Department of Painting. In 1976, the number of examinations also increased, and I was divided into Practical I and II. (See Table 4)
During this period, Professor Jung Chang-sup, Kim Tae, LEE Hak-jin, Shin Pyeong and Professor Lee Jong-sang, who was appointed in 1979, participated in the traditional, historical, and economic aspects of the Korean national painting program. In 1977, did. The dean of this period was Kim Se-jung
8. Comprehensive Campus (1976. 3-): Dispersion of Students, Campus, and Operations
Since 1975, Seoul National University has moved to the Gwanak general campus by the college. After completing the entrance examination for freshman students in 1976, · Moved to the current campus, which is composed of 52 Dong. The biggest change in our school since moving to a comprehensive campus is the reduced sense of solidarity and unity among our members. Prior to moving to a comprehensive campus, our school operated independently even though it belonged to a university, so it was a college-like format, and the campuses were small, so it was easy for students to develop solidarity as “American” across the boundaries of their department or major . However, on Jung-su campus, students are more likely to go to other college buildings far away from our school campuses and listen to them with other college students, and to engage in extracurricular activities through the circle of whole school students.
Accelerating this tendency was the increase in the number of students according to the graduation rate system implemented between 1981 and 1987, and the diversification of undergraduate majors that were introduced in 2008 and designed and operated by the students themselves. In 1983, three departments were replaced by five departments, and three departments and one undergraduate system, initiated in 1998, also promoted diversification of the school. Unlike the three-school curriculum that was chosen at the time of the third grade, the major was already decided in the first year, and students were less likely to meet other students. This situation was further exacerbated in the three departments and one parenting period. Furthermore, after moving to the Gwanak campus in 1976, he became the first independent campus after the opening of the school. After 23 years, he expanded the space in 1999 and moved to the new building (49 buildings) After that, the sense of solidarity with the design major and other major and departments got worse.
This tendency became stronger as each department emphasized the autonomy and differentiation of the operation more and more in the method of entrance examination and the opening of the subject. In 2015, the school organized a budget to demolish the Yin and Daida restaurants and moved to the newly built building, the 74th Dongdae Art Complex, a master’s and doctoral student in the Oriental Painting and Western Painting Department, a doctoral student in the sculpture department, and a professor in the Oriental Painting and Western Painting Department. . It is positive that we have more room for campuses, but this gives us less opportunity to meet with the members of the school because the campuses are divided into three parts.
In the general campus era, the headquarters has operated universities’ entire bachelor’s degree, curriculum, department structure, and entrance examination, so these issues have changed significantly and more frequently than before the general campus period. Diversification of admission test methods · The gradual reduction of faculty size due to the establishment of the headquarters to operate as a graduate school-centered university · Diversification of undergraduate majors has been a major change since 1976 These are important issues.
During the Gwanak campus, the degree program was expanded. In 1986, the master’s course in arts major was added to the existing master’s course, and in the 2000s, the master’s course was established. In 2009, the Master’s course in Art Theory was changed and set up as an art management / doctoral course. In 2013, master’s and doctoral courses in design history and culture were newly established in the Faculty of Design. In addition, since 1993, seven professors, including one professor of art history and one professor of art education, were appointed as foreign professors. In the 1990s, the number of foreign students studying abroad has continued to increase, suggesting that the ratio of professors with experience of studying abroad has greatly increased. The increase in the number of graduates studying abroad is a nationwide phenomenon after the 1987 voluntary overseas travel initiative.
Since the 1990s, the government has demanded diversification not only in student selection methods but also in professor selection methods. In the 2000s, two foreign professors were appointed to the school, but only one is left. Seoul National University, on the other hand, has applied the mandatory employment of the education officer (effective September, 1999) which selected more than one third of new professors from other schools (including other departments of the university) from the end of 1999. Among the 25 professors who have been recruited since the end of 1999, there are 5 foreign students, including 2 foreign students, and 2 foreign students. As mentioned earlier, among the total 36 professors, 19 students, 7 of whom have not studied abroad. Three of the seven students are Professor of Oriental Painting and Practical Arts. Female professors are nine including one foreign professor. Five out of nine students are theoretical professors. From the opening of the school to March 1, 2016 – except for the athletic lecture, which includes lectures on astronomy, and the athletic training lecture, which was held for 20 days at the Headquarters’ Table 1-1> – A total of 94 professors were recruited. Among them, 11 professors, including one foreign professor, are female professors, accounting for 11.7% of all applicants. Nine out of eleven people came in after 1994.